Seas and oceans occupy about 71% of the Earth's surface. Given this fact, it almost seems paradoxical that there are chronic difficulties in obtaining water. Something similar to a "forbidden fruit" before our eyes – abundant, but which we cannot enjoy. This is all the more true because, due to the exodus of populations to coastal areas, a phenomenon that has existed since the dawn of humanity to ensure greater chances of survival, around 40% of the world's population live less than 100 kilometres from the sea and 25% less than 25 kilometres.
It is said that "necessity sharpens the wit". In the case of the use of sea water for consumption, this could not be more true, and that is why, throughout time, just like in order to meet many other basic needs, Man has found ways to take advantage of all that potential. Aristotle was among the first to inform us publicly: sea water can be useful to irrigate fields and quench our thirst.
The philosopher's wise vision was right, as is easily proven. Today, more than 300 million people around the world, along with the most diverse agricultural and industrial activities, benefit from water supplies from more than 16,000 desalination plants in 150 countries, which produce more than 86 million cubic metres of water per day.
These are powerful figures that reveal the growing importance of this practice in the world, both from a social point of view and in terms of economic activities, whether there are agricultural, industrial or even services.